The town's name has Roman origins and derives from "parra", to which the suffix "-anus" was added to indicate ownership, to mean "Land of hoopoe birds". Municipality in the province of Terni, located on a hill, surrounded by a lush environment, from where it is possible to admire a full view across the valley of Chiani with the mountains in the behind, Parrano is a beautiful old town built around a medieval castle. In its territory opens the Gorge of the Ditch, a mile long canyon that opens between high limestone cliffs, in which there are about twenty caverns, that have preserved for centuries important prehistoric remains. The area also features a series of hypothermal water springs, that make of Parrano, an important tourist destination.
The discovery of artifacts in caves, located in the area, evidence the presence of small settlements since the Palaeolithic Ages. Subsequently here settled Etruscans and Romans, while the village developed around the year 1000 on the ruins of the Roman civilization. The town and its citizens submitted the domain of the nearby Orvieto, thanks to its particular position, easy to guard and defend, which, later, also caused a series of long-standing disputes. The first document that reports the existence of a castle, dates back to 1100, a period in which the Bishop of Orvieto granted the territory in fief to the Bulgarelli Family. Over the later centuries Parrano submitted the domain of the Baglioni of Perugia, the Counts of Marciano and those of Marescotti until 1816.
- the XI century Church of the Assumption, which was rebuilt on an existing chapel that belonged to the castle;
- the XV century Church of San Biagio, built outside the city walls;
- the Castle, dating from the XI century, which submitted important renovations in the XVII century. It features a square plan and is entirely built in stone, with battlements, corner towers and five floors;
- the Caves, of great geological interest, inside which several artifacts from the Paleolithic to the Bronze Ages were found;
- Palazzo Fratini, renovated and enlarged several times over the centuries, it features inside valuable frescoes;
- the Territorial Documentation Centre;
- Porta Ripa, restored in the XVI century;
- Piazza Porta, built at the end of the XVII century;
- the hypothermal mineral water springs;
- Palazzo De Sanctis;
- Palazzo Melli.