Castellina Marittima, set in the upper valley of the Fine river, was probably inhabited since the Etruscan period, by studying the techniques of extraction of alabaster in the caves near Castellina. The historical memory lined to the activity of excavation is present in the Alabaster Ecomuseum. Here, all the instruments used in centuries for the excavation, the extraction and the manufacture of alabaster, namely a kind of stone also called "Bianco di Castellina" are kept here.
The village developed in the X century, around a castle built by the Gherardesca counts; then it passed under the control of Pisa, first, and finally of Florence.
Among the architectonic treasure of Castellina, we have to mention the splendid Medici's castle, the Oratory of San Giovanni Battista, the ancient parish church of the village before being replaced by the XVIII century Church of San Giovanni Decollato, partially destroyed during the Second World War and the two Abbey; the first one dedicated to San Quirico, whose remains are disappeared among the vegetation, and the second one dedicated to San Salvatore, whose remains are still visible.