Calcinaia is a town in the province of Pisa, developed in the X century on the left bank of the Arno river, called Vico Vitri. However the actual place name is already mentioned in a document dated back to 1193 and derives from the numerous fornace for the production of lime.
In the Middle Ages, the Cadolingi, noblemen from Pistoia looking for fortune on the banks of the Arno, were the first to exercise their seigniory on the territory. The Upezzinghi, heirs of an ancient Lombard family, ruled later. In 1555, the definitive annexation of Calcinaia to the Medicean Grand Duchy occurred. The duchy had progressively been establishing its power in the Pisan territory and in the important seaport of the Republic for a long time. Cosimo I started numerous works to embank the floods of the Arno.
The Church of San Giovanni Battista is a XVIII century reconstruction of an ancient church already mentioned in a Papal bull of 1193. Inside it is possible to admire important works of art, such as the XVII century wooden choir, two statues both attributed to the school of Andrea Della Robbia and a more recent fresco by Fornaini.
The Church of Compagnia del Crocifisso (XVIII century), the Church of Sant'Andrea in Pozzala, dated back to the XIII century and totally refurbished in the XVIII century, the Upezzinghis tower and Villa di Montecchio, formerly castle, then farm-monastery of the Chartherhouse of Calci and, finally, private property.