The town's name derives from the Latin name "Octavius", to which was added the suffix "-anus" to indicate ownership. Municipality in the province of Naples, located along the eastern slopes of the massif Somma-Vesuvius, the charming town center is known worldwide for its famous wine "Lacryma Christi", already appreciated in the Roman Ages and for its fruit cultivations.
The name is related to the Roman "gens Octavia", family of the Emperor Augustus, who owned a vast area of the territories. Here a Roman village was founded, which over the ages grew and gained importance, until it became a Municipium. It was the scenario of a historic clashes between Sila and Lucio Cluenzio in 90 B.C., and between Spartacus and magistrates Vatinius and Clodius in 73 B.C.
Over the centuries, the town was granted to several noble families, such as: the d'Aquino in 1200, the Orsini and the Cola. In the early XIV century it submitted severe damage during the attacks of the troops of Charles of Anjou. In the XVI century it became was a stronghold of the Maramaldo, then it belonged to the Gonzaga, and then of the Medici, who retained their rule until the second half of the XIX century. Over the centuries the town has repeatedly been buried the ashes of Vesuvius, during its eruptions (the last in 1906).
- the Church of San Michele Arcangelo, built between the XVI and the XVII centuries, on the remains of an earlier chapel, is an impressive building. It features three naves and a dome built after the last eruption of the Vesuvius, in the early XX century. Inside are preserved valuable XVI - XVIII century paintings by the artists Mozzillo and Cignani and a relic of the Cross;
- the Church of St. John the Baptist, which was built in 1689 and presents a majestic portal surmounted by the coat of arms of the Medici Family. Inside are preserved a painting of the artist Bonito, one of the Gambardella, a XVII century wooden altar and a group of wooden statues depicting the Holy Trinity;
- the Church of the Santissimo Rosario, built in 1576, to which has been added an adjoining convent. Inside are preserved several valuable paintings and a marble cenotaph built in 1680;
- the XVII century Church of San Francesco di Paola, which preserves within two XVIII century paintings of the artist Cenatiempo and an XVIII century wooden statue depicting St. Anne;
- the Congregation of Piediterra, a XVII century building, which features, on the main altar, a XVII century painting of De Stasio and a contemporary statue of the Virgin of Health;
- the XVI century Church of the Santissima Annunziata, which preserves inside a wooden group of the artist Cerrone and a painting of Mozzillo;
- the Oratory of Santa Maria, built in the second half of the XVII century, whose interior is entirely frescoed;
- the XVI century Church of San Lorenzo Martire;
- the early XVIII century Parish Church of San Gennaro;
- Palazzo Medici, built around the year 1000, was transformed from a fortress into a noble residence, which belonged to the Medici Family. The interior is embellished by the frescos, ceramic tile floors and plants. Today it belongs to the Town Hall;
- the remains of Roman villa, discovered recently in the district of Seggiari.