A piece of prehistory in the modern world.. This is found at Matera, the second main city of Basilicata, and UNESCO, the UN organisation that deals with education, science and culture, has proclaimed it to be the "heritage of humanity". It is the "caves of Matera", one of the most peculiar, ancient and extraordinary human settlements in the world, which have drawn the attention of scholars and artists from all over the world (the Italian writer Carlo Levi spoke of them in his famous book "Christ stopped at Eboli"). In the "caves", the houses have been dug out of the tufa rock and the walls constructed with the excavated material. Inhabited until recently, the "caves" are now empty and have become the object of projects of cultural and touristic revaluation and restoration. A visit to the "caves of Matera" is a truly unique experience. But it is not the only reason to come to this small, secluded, and beautiful region boarded by two seas: the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian. In Basilicata there are Greek ruins (Metaponto), medieval churches and castles (Melfi, Lagopesole), beautiful beaches (Maratea), and unspoilt countryside (Basilicata shares the splendid park of Pollino with Calabria).And Matera does not only have its "caves": the remarkable blend of Romanesque and Baroque styles in the Church of S. Francesco, for example, is also fascinating. Finally, why not plan a visit to Venosa, birthplace of the great and wise Latin poet Horace? Here, among other attractions, it is possible to admire the medieval Abbey of SS. Trinità and other interesting monuments. In the regional capital, Potenza, ancient and recent earthquakes have seriously damaged the historic centre. But the archaeological museum merits a visit.